According to the results of R&D Activities Survey 2011 conducted by TurkStat, R&D Expenditures (GERD) in Turkey increased by 20.4% compared to the previous year and reached to 11.2 Billion TRY in 2011. The share of GERD in GDP was 0.86%, total number of full time equivalent (FTE) R&D personnel was 92,801 and FTE researchers was 72,109 in 2011.
Gross Domestic Expenditures on Research and Development (GERD)
According to the survey results in public sector, foundation universities and business enterprise sector and calculations based on higher education sector registers for state universities, GERD in Turkey increased by 20.4% compared to the previous year and reached to 11.2 Billion TRY in 2011. Share of GERD in GDP was 0.86% in 2011. It was 0.84% in 2010.
GERD by Performing and Funding Sectors
In 2011, 45.5% of R&D expenditure was performed by higher education sector, 43.2% by business enterprise sector and 11.3% by government sector.
Analyzing the sectors financing R&D expenditure, 45.8% financed by business enterprise sector, 29.2% by government sector, 20.8% by higher education sector, 3.4% by other national sources and 0.7% by foreign funds in 2011.
Number of R&D Personnel
Total number of FTE R&D personnel was 92,801 and FTE researchers was 72,109 in 2011. Annual increase in FTE R&D personnel was 13.5% compared to the previous year. Regarding FTE R&D personnel distribution by sectors, 48,9% was employed in business enterprise sector, 38,4% was employed in higher education sector and 12,7% was employed in government sector in 2011.
Total number of FTE R&D personnel and researchers per ten thousand employed persons was 38 and 30 respectively in 2011.
Regional Distribution of R&D Expenditures and R&D Personnel
According to Classification of Statistical Regions (SR) Level-1, R&D expenditure in 2011 was the highest in TR5 West Anatolia with 28.2%. This region was followed by TR4 East Marmara with 20.8% and TR1 Istanbul with 19.2%.
According to R&D personnel, TR5 West Anatolia with 23.7% was in the first place. This region was followed by TR1 Istanbul with 21.7% and TR4 East Marmara with 15.1%.
Detailed information can ben obtained from TurkStat website.
Updated R&D indicators can be found on TÜBİTAK Department of Science, Technology and Innovation Policy website.