According to the results of R&D Activities Survey 2012 conducted by TurkStat, R&D Expenditures (GERD) in Turkey increased by 17.1% compared to the previous year and reached to 12.6 Billion PPP$ in 2012. The share of GERD in GDP was 0.92%, total number of full time equivalent (FTE) R&D personnel was 105 thousand and FTE researchers was 82 thousand in 2012.
Gross Domestic Expenditures on Research and Development (GERD)
According to the survey results in public sector, foundation universities and business enterprise sector and calculations based on higher education sector registers for state universities, GERD in Turkey increased by 17.1% compared to the previous year and reached to 12.6 Billion PPP$ in 2012. Share of GERD in GDP was 0.92% in 2012. It was 0.86% in 2011.
GERD by Performing and Funding Sectors
In 2012, 45.1% of R&D expenditure was performed by business enterprise sector, 43.9% by higher education sector and 11.0% by government sector.
Analyzing the sectors financing R&D expenditure, 46.8% financed by business enterprise sector, 28.2% by government sector, 21.1% by higher education sector, 3.4% by other national sources and 0.6% by foreign funds in 2012.
Number of R&D Personnel
Total number of FTE R&D personnel was 105 thousand and FTE researchers was 82 thousand in 2012. Annual increase in FTE R&D personnel was 13.3% compared to the previous year. Regarding FTE R&D personnel distribution by sectors, 49.7% was employed in business enterprise sector, 38.8% was employed in higher education sector and 11.7% was employed in government sector in 2012.
Total number of FTE R&D personnel and researchers per ten thousand employed persons was 42 and 33 respectively in 2012.
Regional Distribution of R&D Expenditures and R&D Personnel
According to Classification of Statistical Regions (SR) Level-1, R&D expenditure in 2012 was the highest in TR5 West Anatolia with 28.5%. This region was followed by TR4 East Marmara with 20.6 % and TR1 Istanbul with 20%.
According to R&D personnel, TR5 West Anatolia with 22.8% was in the first place. This region was followed by TR1 Istanbul with 21.8% and TR4 East Marmara with 15.4%.
Detailed information can be obtained from TurkStat website.
Updated R&D indicators can be found on TÜBİTAK Department of Science, Technology and Innovation Policy website.