According to the results of R&D Activities Survey 2013 conducted by TurkStat, R&D Expenditures (GERD) in Turkey increased by 9% compared to the previous year and reached to 13.5 Billion PPP$ in 2013. The share of GERD in GDP was 0.95%, total number of full time equivalent (FTE) R&D personnel was 113 thousand and FTE researchers was 89 thousand in 2013.
Gross Domestic Expenditures on Research and Development (GERD)
According to the survey results in public sector, foundation universities and business enterprise sector and calculations based on higher education sector registers for state universities, Gross Domestic Expenditure on Research and Development (GERD) increased in Turkey in 2013 compared to the previous year by 9% and reached to 13.5 Billion PPP$. In Turkey, share of GERD in GDP was 0.95% in 2013.
GERD by Performing and Funding Sectors
Share of business enterprises sector in total R&D expenditure increased by 47.5%. This sector was followed by higher education sector by 42.1% and public sector by 10.4% respectively.
R&D expenditure was financed by business enterprises by 48.9% in 2013. This financier was followed by government sector by 26.6%, higher education sector by 20.4%, other national sources by 3.3% and foreign funds by 0.8% respectively.
Number of R&D Personnel
Total number of FTE R&D personnel was 113 thousand and FTE researchers was 89 thousand in 2013. Annual increase in FTE R&D personnel was 7.5% compared to the previous year. Regarding FTE R&D personnel distribution by sectors, 51.7% was employed in business enterprise sector, 37.7% was employed in higher education sector and 10.6% was employed in government sector in 2013.
Regional Distribution of R&D Expenditures and R&D Personnel
According to Classification of Statistical Regions (SR) Level-1, R&D expenditure in 2013 was the highest in (TR5) West Anatolia with 27.5% which consists of Ankara, Konya and Karaman. This region was followed by (TR4) East Marmara by 21.3% and (TR1) Istanbul by 20.3%.
According to R&D personnel, (TR1) Istanbul by 22.7% was in the first place. This region was followed by West Anatolia (TR5) Istanbul with 22.2% and (TR4) East Marmara by 15.5%.
Detailed information can be obtained from TurkStat website
Updated R&D indicators can be found on TÜBİTAK Department of Science, Technology and Innovation Policy website.